We propose to assess broad-scale patterns in floral traits, pollinators and floral antagonists in 15 focal species, representing 6 sections of the tribe Onagreae that are broadly distributed across the western United States. Pairs include one linalool-producing and one non-linalool producing species, or species with population-level variation in linalool production and include 1 pair of Clarkia species (one with floral scent, C. brewerii and one without scent, C. concinna) and 6 pairs of species representing the diversity of the largest hawkmoth pollinated genus, Oenothera (sections Pachylophus, Calylophus, Eremia, Contortae, Anogra, and Megapterium, Table 1). In Years 1 & 2, research teams will sample populations at the height of flowering and again when fruits are mature to assess Hyles, Altica and Mompha herbivory along with other herboivores.

In Years 3 & 4, we propose a series of experiments focused on 7 focal species to assess causal links between differential pollinator services by hawkmoths and bees, oviposition rates by H. lineata, and Mompha using both trait- and community- based experiments.